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Version: v4


Environment Variables#


When deploying to production, set the NEXTAUTH_URL environment variable to the canonical URL of your site.


If your Next.js application uses a custom base path, specify the route to the API endpoint in full.



To set environment variables on Vercel, you can use the dashboard or the vercel env command.


If provided, server-side calls will use this instead of NEXTAUTH_URL. Useful in environments when the server doesn't have access to the canonical URL of your site. Defaults to NEXTAUTH_URL.



Options are passed to NextAuth.js when initializing it in an API route.


  • Default value: []
  • Required: Yes


An array of authentication providers for signing in (e.g. Google, Facebook, Twitter, GitHub, Email, etc) in any order. This can be one of the built-in providers or an object with a custom provider.

See the providers documentation for a list of supported providers and how to use them.


  • Default value: null
  • Required: No (unless using email provider)


A database connection string or configuration object.


  • Default value: string (SHA hash of the "options" object)
  • Required: No - but strongly recommended!


A random string used to hash tokens, sign cookies and generate cryptographic keys.

If not specified, it uses a hash for all configuration options, including Client ID / Secrets for entropy.

The default behaviour is volatile, and it is strongly recommended you explicitly specify a value to avoid invalidating end user sessions when configuration changes are deployed.


  • Default value: object
  • Required: No


The session object and all properties on it are optional.

Default values for this option are shown below:

session: {  // Use JSON Web Tokens for session instead of database sessions.  // This option can be used with or without a database for users/accounts.  // Note: `jwt` is automatically set to `true` if no database is specified.  jwt: false,
  // Seconds - How long until an idle session expires and is no longer valid.  maxAge: 30 * 24 * 60 * 60, // 30 days
  // Seconds - Throttle how frequently to write to database to extend a session.  // Use it to limit write operations. Set to 0 to always update the database.  // Note: This option is ignored if using JSON Web Tokens  updateAge: 24 * 60 * 60, // 24 hours}


  • Default value: object
  • Required: No


JSON Web Tokens can be used for session tokens if enabled with session: { jwt: true } option. JSON Web Tokens are enabled by default if you have not specified a database.

By default JSON Web Tokens are signed (JWS) but not encrypted (JWE), as JWT encryption adds additional overhead and comes with some caveats. You can enable encryption by setting encryption: true.

JSON Web Token Options#

jwt: {  // A secret to use for key generation - you should set this explicitly  // Defaults to NextAuth.js secret if not explicitly specified.  // This is used to generate the actual signingKey and produces a warning  // message if not defined explicitly.  secret: 'INp8IvdIyeMcoGAgFGoA61DdBglwwSqnXJZkgz8PSnw',  // You can generate a signing key using `jose newkey -s 512 -t oct -a HS512`  // This gives you direct knowledge of the key used to sign the token so you can use it  // to authenticate indirectly (eg. to a database driver)  signingKey: {     kty: "oct",     kid: "Dl893BEV-iVE-x9EC52TDmlJUgGm9oZ99_ZL025Hc5Q",     alg: "HS512",     k: "K7QqRmJOKRK2qcCKV_pi9PSBv3XP0fpTu30TP8xn4w01xR3ZMZM38yL2DnTVPVw6e4yhdh0jtoah-i4c_pZagA"  },  // If you chose something other than the default algorithm for the signingKey (HS512)  // you also need to configure the algorithm  verificationOptions: {     algorithms: ['HS256']  },  // Set to true to use encryption. Defaults to false (signing only).  encryption: true,  encryptionKey: "",  // decryptionKey: encryptionKey,  decryptionOptions: {     algorithms: ['A256GCM']  },  // You can define your own encode/decode functions for signing and encryption  // if you want to override the default behaviour.  async encode({ secret, token, maxAge }) {},  async decode({ secret, token, maxAge }) {},}

An example JSON Web Token contains a payload like this:

{  name: 'Iain Collins',  email: '',  picture: '',  iat: 1594601838,  exp: 1597193838}

JWT Helper#

You can use the built-in getToken() helper method to verify and decrypt the token, like this:

import { getToken } from "next-auth/jwt"
const secret = process.env.JWT_SECRET
export default async (req, res) => {  const token = await getToken({ req, secret })  console.log("JSON Web Token", token)  res.end()}

For convenience, this helper function is also able to read and decode tokens passed in an HTTP Bearer header.


The getToken() helper requires the following options:

  • req - (object) Request object
  • secret - (string) JWT Secret

You must also pass any options configured on the jwt option to the helper.

e.g. Including custom session maxAge and custom signing and/or encryption keys or options


It also supports the following options:

  • secureCookie - (boolean) Use secure prefixed cookie name

    By default, the helper function will attempt to determine if it should use the secure prefixed cookie (e.g. true in production and false in development, unless NEXTAUTH_URL contains an HTTPS URL).

  • cookieName - (string) Session token cookie name

    The secureCookie option is ignored if cookieName is explicitly specified.

  • raw - (boolean) Get raw token (not decoded)

    If set to true returns the raw token without decrypting or verifying it.


The JWT is stored in the Session Token cookie, the same cookie used for tokens with database sessions.


  • Default value: {}
  • Required: No


Specify URLs to be used if you want to create custom sign in, sign out and error pages.

Pages specified will override the corresponding built-in page.

For example:

pages: {  signIn: '/auth/signin',  signOut: '/auth/signout',  error: '/auth/error', // Error code passed in query string as ?error=  verifyRequest: '/auth/verify-request', // (used for check email message)  newUser: '/auth/new-user' // New users will be directed here on first sign in (leave the property out if not of interest)}

See the documentation for the pages option for more information.


  • Default value: object
  • Required: No


Callbacks are asynchronous functions you can use to control what happens when an action is performed.

Callbacks are extremely powerful, especially in scenarios involving JSON Web Tokens as they allow you to implement access controls without a database and to integrate with external databases or APIs.

You can specify a handler for any of the callbacks below.

callbacks: {  async signIn({ user, account, profile, email, credentials }) {    return true  },  async redirect({ url, baseUrl }) {    return baseUrl  },  async session({ session, token, user }) {    return session  },  async jwt({ token, user, account, profile, isNewUser }) {    return token  }}

See the callbacks documentation for more information on how to use the callback functions.


  • Default value: object
  • Required: No


Events are asynchronous functions that do not return a response, they are useful for audit logging.

You can specify a handler for any of these events below - e.g. for debugging or to create an audit log.

The content of the message object varies depending on the flow (e.g. OAuth or Email authentication flow, JWT or database sessions, etc). See the events documentation for more information on the form of each message object and how to use the events functions.

events: {  async signIn(message) { /* on successful sign in */ },  async signOut(message) { /* on signout */ },  async createUser(message) { /* user created */ },  async updateUser(message) { /* user updated - e.g. their email was verified */ },  async linkAccount(message) { /* account (e.g. Twitter) linked to a user */ },  async session(message) { /* session is active */ },  async error(message) { /* error in authentication flow */ }}


  • Default value: none
  • Required: No


By default NextAuth.js does not include an adapter any longer. If you would like to persist user / account data, please install one of the many available adapters. More information can be found in the adapter documentation.


  • Default value: false
  • Required: No


Set debug to true to enable debug messages for authentication and database operations.


  • Default value: console
  • Required: No


Override any of the logger levels (undefined levels will use the built-in logger), and intercept logs in NextAuth. You can use this to send NextAuth logs to a third-party logging service.

The code parameter for error and warn are explained in the Warnings and Errors pages respectively.


import log from "logging-service"
export default NextAuth({  ...  logger: {    error(code, metadata) {      log.error(code, metadata)    },    warn(code) {      log.warn(code)    },    debug(code, metadata) {      log.debug(code, metadata)    }  }  ...})

If the debug level is defined by the user, it will be called regardless of the debug: false option.


  • Default value: object
  • Required: No


Changes the color scheme theme of pages as well as allows some minor customization. Set theme.colorScheme to "light", if you want to force pages to always be light. Set to "dark", if you want to force pages to always be dark. Set to "auto", (or leave this option out) if you want the pages to follow the preferred system theme. (Uses the prefers-color-scheme media query.)

In addition, you can define a logo URL in theme.logo which will be rendered above the main card in the default signin/signout/error/verify-request pages, as well as a theme.brandColor which will affect the accent color of these pages.

theme: {  colorScheme: "auto", // "auto" | "dark" | "light"  brandColor: "", // Hex color code  logo: "" // Absolute URL to image}

Advanced Options#

Advanced options are passed the same way as basic options, but may have complex implications or side effects. You should try to avoid using advanced options unless you are very comfortable using them.


  • Default value: true for HTTPS sites / false for HTTP sites
  • Required: No


When set to true (the default for all site URLs that start with https://) then all cookies set by NextAuth.js will only be accessible from HTTPS URLs.

This option defaults to false on URLs that start with http:// (e.g. http://localhost:3000) for developer convenience.

You can manually set this option to false to disable this security feature and allow cookies to be accessible from non-secured URLs (this is not recommended).


Properties on any custom cookies that are specified override this option.


Setting this option to false in production is a security risk and may allow sessions to be hijacked if used in production. It is intended to support development and testing. Using this option is not recommended.


  • Default value: {}
  • Required: No


You can override the default cookie names and options for any of the cookies used by NextAuth.js.

This is an advanced option and using it is not recommended as you may break authentication or introduce security flaws into your application.

You can specify one or more cookies with custom properties, but if you specify custom options for a cookie you must provide all the options for that cookie.

If you use this feature, you will likely want to create conditional behaviour to support setting different cookies policies in development and production builds, as you will be opting out of the built-in dynamic policy.


An example of a use case for this option is to support sharing session tokens across subdomains.


cookies: {  sessionToken: {    name: `__Secure-next-auth.session-token`,    options: {      httpOnly: true,      sameSite: 'lax',      path: '/',      secure: true    }  },  callbackUrl: {    name: `__Secure-next-auth.callback-url`,    options: {      sameSite: 'lax',      path: '/',      secure: true    }  },  csrfToken: {    name: `__Host-next-auth.csrf-token`,    options: {      httpOnly: true,      sameSite: 'lax',      path: '/',      secure: true    }  },  pkceCodeVerifier: {    name: `${cookiePrefix}next-auth.pkce.code_verifier`,    options: {      httpOnly: true,      sameSite: 'lax',      path: '/',      secure: useSecureCookies    }  }}

Using a custom cookie policy may introduce security flaws into your application and is intended as an option for advanced users who understand the implications. Using this option is not recommended.